ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) is a tool that helps to design, describe, and deliver programmes and award higher education qualifications. The use of ECTS, in conjunction with outcomes-based qualifications frameworks, makes programmes and qualifications more transparent and facilitates the recognition of qualifications.
Since many grading systems co-exist in Europe and, considering that interpretation of grades varies considerably from one country to another, the ECTS grading scale has been developed to provide a common measure and facilitate the transfer of students and their grades between European higher education institutions, by allowing national and local grading systems to be interchangeable. Grades are reported on a carefully calibrated and uniform A-to-F scale combined with keywords and short qualitative definitions.
Usually, the performance of the student is documented by a local/national grade. The ECTS grade is not meant to replace the local grades but to be used optionally and additionally to effectively "translate" and "transcript" a grade from one institution to another.
As the ECTS grade is a relative grade there is no fixed conversion into the German mark system. Therefore, the table below only serves as a non-binding general orientation.
For further information European Commission's website.
German Mark *Note*
German mark in words
ECTS - Grade
ECTS - Definition
1,0 – 1,5
1,6 – 2,0
2,1 – 3,0
3,1 – 3,5
3,6 – 4,0
4,1 – 5,0