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ECTS guide

ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) is a tool that helps to award higher education qualifications. The use of ECTS makes study programs and qualifications more transparent and facilitates the recognition of qualifications.

Many grading systems co-exist in Europe and the interpretation of grades varies considerably from one country to another. Therefore, the ECTS grading scale has been developed to provide a common measure and facilitate the transfer of students and their grades between European higher education institutions. Grades are reported on an A-to-F scale combined with keywords and short qualitative definitions.

Usually, the performance of the student is documented by a local/national grade. The ECTS grade is not meant to replace the local grades but to be used optionally and additionally to effectively "translate" a grade from one European institution to another.

The ECTS grade is a relative grade, that is why there is no fixed conversion into the German marking system. Therefore, the table below only serves as a non-binding general orientation.

For further information see the European Commission's website.

A: Excellent – outstanding performance with only minor errors
B: Very Good – above the average standard but with some errors
C: Good – generally sound work but with a number of notable errors
D: Satisfactory – fair but with significant shortcomings
E: Sufficient – performance meets the minimum criteria
F: Fail – some more work required before credit can be awarded